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Ibogaine is a naturally derived, psychoactive alkaloid extracted from the root bark of the Tabrananthe iboga plant native to West-Central Africa. Ibogaine has two chief molecular ingredients, noribogaine and 18-methoxycoronaridine (18-MC), producing stimulatory and hallucinogenic effects.

Historically, ibogaine has been used in religious and initiatory ceremonies by the native people of West-Central Africa. It has also been used in low doses to treat fatigue, thirst, and hunger.

The United States Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) categorizes ibogaine as a Schedule I drug. Schedule I drugs are defined as having no medically approved purpose and considered to have a high potential for abuse.Buy Ibogaine Online Minnesota UK,ibogaine for sale England , where to buy ibogaine Scotland ,Order Ibogaine Northern Ireland ,purchase ibogaine Wales

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Despite its Schedule I status in the United States, ibogaine is used in dozens of clinics worldwide.Its legal status varies geographically. In New Zealand, for example, the medical use of ibogaine is legal. These clinics sometimes treat addiction.

In these clinics, ibogaine is administered as a single, one-time dose.This one-time use makes the treatment method unique from most FDA-approved MOUDs.

In 2016, a 12-month longitudinal study in New Zealand examined legal ibogaine treatment outcomes for opioid dependence. The study found that a single ibogaine treatment reduced opioid withdrawal symptoms and achieved opioid cessation or sustained reduced use in dependent individuals over 12 months.

Clinical studies on the effects of ibogaine in animals suggested that the alkaloid alleviated the symptoms of opioid withdrawal and reduced opioid cravings after detoxification.Buy Ibogaine Online Minnesota ,ibogaine for sale Minneapolis , where to buy ibogaine St. Paul ,Order Ibogaine Rochester,purchase ibogaine BloomingtonBuy Ibogaine Online Minnesota UK,ibogaine for sale England , where to buy ibogaine Scotland ,Order Ibogaine Northern Ireland ,purchase ibogaine Wales

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The use of iboga in African spiritual ceremonies was first reported by French and Belgian explorers in the 19th century, beginning with the work of French naval physician and explorer of Gabon Marie-Théophile Griffon du Bellay. The first botanical description of the Tabernanthe iboga plant was made in 1889. Ibogaine was first isolated from T. iboga in 1901 by Dybowski and Landrin,and independently by Haller and Heckel in the same year using T. iboga samples from Gabon. Complete synthesis of ibogaine was accomplished by G. Büchi in 1966.Since then, several other synthesis methods have been developed.

From the 1930s to 1960s, ibogaine was sold in France in the form of Lambarène, an extract of the Tabernanthe manii plant, and promoted as a mental and physical stimulant. The drug enjoyed some popularity among post-World War II athletes. Lambarène was withdrawn from the market in 1966 when the sale of ibogaine-containing products became illegal in France.

In the late 1960s, the World Health Assembly classified ibogaine as a “substance likely to cause dependency or endanger human health”; the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) assigned it Schedule I classification, and the International Olympic Committee banned it as a potential doping agent.Buy Ibogaine Online Minnesota UK,ibogaine for sale England , where to buy ibogaine Scotland ,Order Ibogaine Northern Ireland ,purchase ibogaine Wales

Anecdotal reports concerning ibogaine’s effects appeared in the early 1960s. Its anti-addictive properties were discovered accidentally by Howard Lotsof in 1962, at the age of 19, when he and five friends—all heroin addicts—noted subjective reduction of their craving and withdrawal symptoms while taking it.Further anecdotal observation convinced Lotsof of its potential usefulness in treating substance addictions. He contracted with a Belgian company to produce ibogaine in tablet form for clinical trials in the Netherlands, and was awarded a United States patent for the product in 1985. The first objective, placebo-controlled evidence of ibogaine’s ability to attenuate opioid withdrawal in rats was published by Dzoljic et al. in 1988.Diminution of morphine self-administration was reported in preclinical studies by Glick et al. in 1991. Cappendijk et al. demonstrated reduction in cocaine self-administration in rats in 1993,and Rezvani reported reduced alcohol dependence in three strains of “alcohol-preferring” rats in 1995.

As the use of ibogaine spread, its administration varied widely; some groups administered it systematically using well-developed methods and medical personnel, while others employed haphazard and possibly dangerous methodology. Lotsof and his colleagues, committed to the traditional administration of ibogaine, developed treatment regimens themselves. In 1992, Eric Taub brought ibogaine to an offshore location close to the United States, where he began providing treatments and popularizing its use.In Costa Rica, Lex Kogan, another leading proponent, joined Taub in systematizing its administration. The two men established medically monitored treatment clinics in several countries.Buy Ibogaine Online Minnesota UK,ibogaine for sale England , where to buy ibogaine Scotland ,Order Ibogaine Northern Ireland ,purchase ibogaine Wales

In 1981, an unnamed European manufacturer produced 44 kg of iboga extract. The entire stock was purchased by Carl Waltenburg, who distributed it under the name “Indra extract” and used it in 1982 to treat heroin addicts in the community of Christiania. Indra extract was available for sale over the Internet until 2006, when the Indra web presence disappeared. Various products are currently sold in a number of countries as “Indra extract”, but it is unclear if any of them are derived from Waltenburg’s original stock. Ibogaine and related indole compounds are susceptible to oxidation over time.

The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) began funding clinical studies of ibogaine in the United States in the early 1990s, but terminated the project in 1995.Data demonstrating ibogaine’s efficacy in attenuating opioid withdrawal in drug-dependent human subjects was published by Alper et al. in 1999.A cohort of 33 patients were treated with 6 to 29 mg/kg of ibogaine; 25 displayed resolution of the signs of opioid withdrawal from 24 hours to 72 hours post-treatment, but one 24-year-old female, who received the highest dosage, died. Mash et al. (2000), using lower oral doses (10–12 mg/kg) in 27 patients, demonstrated significantly lower objective opiate withdrawal scores in heroin addicts 36 hours after treatment, with self-reports of decreased cocaine and opiate craving and alleviated depression symptoms. Many of these effects appeared sustainable over a one-month post-discharge follow-up.

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Iboga has been used ritually as a hallucinogen. West African cultures use the root of iboga in initiation rites (ie, to cause a near-death experience as a catalyst for spiritual discovery) and as an aphrodisiac and stimulant; the growing use of iboga has been said to be an important force against the spread of Christianity and Islam in its native growing regions.Maas 2006Schultes 1976 Use of iboga has been legally prohibited in the United States since 1970 following several fatalities, a known risk of the Gabon initiation rituals.Maas 2006Vastag 2002 A chance discovery of the antiaddictive properties of iboga led to the issue of a patent for use of ibogaine in the treatment of opioid dependence.Vastag 2002 Clinics using ibogaine have been established in Western countries, including in Panama and the Caribbean island of St. Kitts.Alper 2007,

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Indole alkaloids comprise approximately 6% of the root.Lewis 1977 Besides ibogaine (80%), other major components of T. iboga root bark extracts include ibogaline (15%), ibogamine (up to 5%), and, to a lesser extent, tabernanthine and voacangine.Corkery 2018Koenig 2015Lavaud 2017 Research has focused largely on the pharmacology of ibogaine. Numerous other compounds are found in iboga (eg, coronaridine,Buy Ibogaine Online Minnesota ,ibogaine for sale Minneapolis , where to buy ibogaine St. Paul ,Order Ibogaine Rochester,purchase ibogaine Bloomington isovoacangine, conophararyngine). The 18-methoxylated analogue of coronaridine (18-methoxycoronaridine [18-MC]) has been investigated as a safer and possibly more effective alternative to ibogaine and coronaridine. 18-MC also exhibits antiaddictive effects and is less toxic in animals than ibogaine.Koenig 2015

The DEA has designated ibogaine a Schedule I substance under the CSA. It is a Schedule I hallucinogenic substance in the United States.FDA 2019

The pharmacology of ibogaine is complex, with multiple possible actions reflected by its ability to treat diverse addictions.Glick 2001 The effects of ibogaine may be dose dependent. Low ibogaine doses appear to act on the cerebella to stimulate the sympathetic nervous system, as well as increase muscle strength and endurance. Higher doses lead to vagal dominance (ie, a “feigned death”) and induce psychedelic effects; users report a state of dreaming without loss of consciousness.Davis 2017Maas 2006Shep 2016 Large doses also induce hallucinations, and iboga has been used ritually as a hallucinogen; it has been suggested that ibogaine’s hallucinogenic properties allegedly contribute to its efficacy in treating dependence disorders.Shep 2016

The autonomic nervous system is affected by ibogaine by means of various neurotransmitter systems and the fastigial nucleus.Maas 2006 Ibogaine and noribogaine act on several neurotransmitter systems in the brain, potentially contributing to an ability to suppress autonomic changes, objective signs, and subjective distress associated with opiate withdrawal. They interact with acetylcholine, serotonin, and dopamine systems, as well as show a micromolar affinity to numerous receptor sites such sigma receptors, kappa- and mu-opioid receptors, and the N-methyl-D-aspartate ion channel. Noribogaine also elevates serotonin concentrations in the brain, a possible explanation for its antidepressive effects. The sustained presence of noribogaine in the CNS coupled with its agonist activity at opioid receptors may produce the self-tapering effect in opiate-dependent patients following abrupt discontinuation of opiates. In addition, ibogaine is able to alter the expression of several proteins, substance P, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Noribogaine might be less neurotoxic than ibogaine.Litjens 2016

The highly lipophilic ibogaine is subject to extensive biotransformation, primarily by the CYP2D6 enzyme, and disappears fairly rapidly from the bloodstream (half-life of 7.5 hours).Mash 2001 Interindividual differences are evident regarding the metabolism of ibogaine; clinical studies have classified individuals as extensive or poor metabolizers. Blood levels of noribogaine, an active metabolite, remain elevated 24 hours after a single dose, partially explaining the long duration of action. In addition, ibogaine is stored in fat and a slow release from fat stores has been hypothesized to further contribute to its protracted effects .Buy Ibogaine Online Minnesota UK,ibogaine for sale England , where to buy ibogaine Scotland ,Order Ibogaine Northern Ireland ,purchase ibogaine Wales

 

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